To enter into a valid contract, the counterparty must meet the following conditions: Fraud Act: The basis of most modern laws that require certain promises to be made in writing to be enforceable; it was passed by the English Parliament in 1677. In the United States, although state laws vary, most require written agreements in five types of contracts: contracts to assume someone else`s obligation; contracts which cannot be performed within one year; contracts for the sale, lease or mortgage of land; contracts taking into account marriage; and contracts for the sale of goods with a total value of $500 or more. The other doctrine of contract law that has not emerged from the common law is the status of fraud. The Statute of Fraud, adopted by each of the fifty States, is a body of law that determines when a treaty must be written to be enforceable. If there is no consideration in a contract, the contract becomes invalid and the courts may refuse to perform the contract. Sometimes a contract lacks consideration, although at first glance it seems that the parties are exchanging something of value. Bilateral treaty: A contract in which the parties exchange a promise for a promise. Although we have tried to present the basics of consideration in contracts here, it can be very complex. The same applies if the consideration is a service for which the parties had previously concluded a contract. For example, A agrees to cancel B`s house for $500, but halfway through work, A B says he won`t be ready unless B increases the payment to $750. If B agrees and A then leaves the job, B A still only has to pay the $500 originally agreed, as A was already contractually obligated to cancel the house for that amount.
In general, a conditional consideration is a valid consideration. Factors other than a business that make a promise enforceable include the use of the promise of the promise, certain promises made in exchange for past or moral considerations, the waiver of the intangible terms of a business, and promises made in special legally recognized forms, such as . B promise under seal. Suppose A is a film screenwriter and B runs a film production company. A said to B, “Buy my script.” B says, “How about that – I`m going to pay you $5,000 so your film won`t be produced for another year. If I produce your film this year, I will give you $50,000 more, and no one else will be able to produce it. If I don`t produce your film this year, then you can leave. If the two subsequently come into conflict, the question of whether a contract exists is answered. B had an option contract – he could decide if he wanted to produce the script or not.
B`s counterpart was the downward amount of $5,000 and the possibility of $50,000. A`s counterpart was the exclusive rights to the film script for at least one year. Consideration is a concept of English common law and is a necessity for simple contracts, but not for special contracts (contracts by deed). The concept has been adopted by other common law jurisdictions. As we will see later, there are five different situations in which a contract is considered a violation of the status of fraud and is therefore void if it is not written. These are: contracts to assume the obligation of others; contracts which cannot be performed within one year; contracts for the sale, lease or mortgage of land; contracts taking into account marriage; and contracts for the sale of goods with a total value of $500 or more. As a result, many organizations consider consideration to be equivalent to any factor that makes a contract or promise enforceable. This concept, which equates consideration with any factor that makes a contract enforceable, is called the “enforceable factor” theory.
For example: First, not all bargain promises are enforceable. Second, some promises are enforceable, although they are not taken into account. Without an exchange of consideration, a promise may not be enforceable. For example, if a neighbor promises to provide you with their car for free, that promise will usually not be enforceable because it shows no consideration. On the other hand, if a neighbor offers to sell you his car for $1,000, your delivery of the money is in exchange for the validity and enforceability of the contract. Consideration can be seen as the concept of value offered and accepted by the individuals or organizations that enter into contracts. Anything of value that one party promises to the other when entering into a contract can be treated as “consideration”: for example, if A signs a contract to buy a car from B for $5,000, A`s consideration is $5,000 and B`s consideration is the car. A party that is already legally required to provide money, object, service or forbearance will not take into account if it simply promises to comply with this obligation.    This legal obligation may arise from the law or from an obligation under a previous contract.
The reason why both exist in common law jurisdictions is considered by eminent scholars following the combination of two different sons by 19th century judges. First, the requirement of consideration was at the heart of Assumpsit`s action, which had grown up in the Middle Ages and remained the normal complaint of breach of a simple treaty in England and Wales until 1884, when the old forms of action were abolished; Second, the concept of agreement between two or more parties as the essential legal and moral basis of the treaty was promoted in all legal systems by the 18th century French writer Pothier in his Traité des Obligations, which (especially after its translation into English in 1805) was widely read by English judges and jurists. The latter fit well with the fashionable theories of the will of the time, particularly John Stuart Mill`s influential ideas on free will, and was grafted onto the traditional common law requirement to support a presumption trial.  For example, let`s say your neighbor admires your bike. You know you`re moving soon, so offer yourself (an “offer” is part of a contract) to sell it to him for $100 (in return). She accepts your offer (acceptance is also part of a contract), but can only pay you when she goes to the bank. So you scribble a short note describing your two intentions to make this agreement and give it a copy of the note. You now have a binding contract because the elements of a contract are there, including this “negotiated” exchange. These legally enforceable commitments may be made in writing or orally. In any case, the conclusion of a legally binding contract requires two fundamental elements, consideration and mutual consent. This chapter deals with related issues and problems. We will discuss mutual consent in the next chapter.
In addition, trading with a promise of action is also considered a valid consideration. For example: On the other hand, if you tell your neighbor that you will give her the bike if you can not sell it during your garage sale, there is no consideration because she has not agreed to pay you anything. His promise to give him the bike may be a binding promise, but it is not an enforceable contract. Consideration is usually not an element of a gift. A contract in its most basic definition is nothing more than a legally enforceable promise. Civil law systems take the approach that an exchange of promises or a correspondence of wills alone and not an exchange of precious rights is the right basis. So if A promises to give a book to B and B accepts the offer without giving anything in return, B would have a legal right to the book and A could not change his mind to give it to B as a gift. However, in common law systems, the concept of culpa in contrahendo, a form of confiscation, is increasingly used to create obligations in pre-contractual negotiations.   Forfeiture is a doctrine of fairness law that provides for the creation of legal obligations where one party has given an assurance to another and the other has relied on insurance to its detriment. Today, however, contract law is largely based on the jurisprudence that has been established over the past century and a half. In addition to common law and jurisprudence, two other canons of contract law are included in the discussion of this course: the Uniform Commercial Code and the Fraud Act.
It should be noted that a promise to do something illegal or immoral does not serve as a valid consideration. The following cases amount to non-consideration: An exception to this rule is when an obligation is owed to a third party. A step taken before making a promise of payment or granting any other benefit can sometimes be a consideration for the promise. .